Página das disciplinas de Histologia e Embriologia I e II da Licenciatura em Medicina Veterinária

Docente Responsável: Fernando Capela e Silva 

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Histology and Embriology (Veterinary Medicine)

Aims of the course

At the end of course the student should be able to:

  1. describe the principal techniques of preparing biological material for study with the light and electron microscope.

  2. describe the events that take place during the early embryological development, from the fertilisation to the establishment of the basic germ layers and know the chief events of organs development.

  3. describe the microscopic structure and the functional meaning of the four basic tissue types, organs and systems, of the domestic animals.

  4. identify the four basic tissue types at the light microscope.

  5. identify the organs at the light microscope.

  6. recognise the cells, tissues and organs in photomicrographs obtained with light microscope and the electron microscope

  7. predict cell, tissue and organ function from their structure

Program contents

1. Embriology

Early development in birds and mammals. Review of mitosis and meiosis. Fertilisation. Cleavage and blastodermic vesicle formation. Establishment of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. Extraembryonic membranes and placentation. Microscopic structure of the various types of placenta found in the domestic animals. Development of the various organs systems in domestic mammals and birds. Embryonic stem cells.

2. General histology

General principles of histology. Basic techniques used in the study of cells and tissues, preparation of histologic sections, microscopy and interpreting sections, helpful hints and artefacts induced by histological processing. Histologic terminology. Concept, origin and classification of the four main tissues. Tissue involvement in body processes.

Cell Biology. Cell structure and function; membrane structure, cell adhesion molecules and cell junctions, cell-cell interactions; specializations of free surface: cilia, flagella, microvilli, stereocilia; specialization of basal surface: basement membrane; the cytoskeleton and cell movement; cell cycle and replication, mitosis and meiosis; cell types and cell differentiation; the cellular environment: intercellular substances and tissue fluids; cell proliferation and renewal: cell death, necrosis, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and anoikis.

Histology. Epithelial tissue: classification of epithelium. Covering and lining epithelium. Basement membrane, epithelial cell adhesion and cell surface modifications. Glands. Connective tissue: Classification; cells of the connective tissue; the extracellular matrix; study of the main types of connective tissues: proper conective tissues, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone. Blood: peripheral blood, hematopoiesis. Muscle Tissue: classification, morphology and functional meaning. Nervous tissue: origin and composition; the neurone and supportive cells. organisation of the central and peripheral nervous system; histophisiology of the nervous tissue.

3. Special histology

Study of the normal histology of the main systems of the body of domestic mammals and birds. Organization of organs: parenchyma and stroma, tubular organs, organization of solid organs, body cavities and membranes. Cardiovascular System: Histology of heart, elastic and muscular arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venioles, small, medium and large sized veins, vasa vasorum. Lymphatic system: Lymphoid tissue; histology of thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils. Integumentary System: Histology of skin of animals; hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands; microscopic structure of mammary gland. Respiratory System: Histology of nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac and alveoli; blood air barrier. Urinary System: Histology and histogenesis of kidneys, ureters, urinary; bladder; maale and female urethrae. Digestive System: Histology of oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum and simple stomach; small and large intestine, liver, pancreas and salivary glands, histogenesis of digestive system and accessory digestive glands. Reproductive System: Histology of gonads and duct system of male and female reproductive systems. Endocrine System: Histology of pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands. Nervous system: Histology of cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Special sense organs.

4. Pratical

Preparation of histological sections and staining for light microscopy. Components of light microscope. Units of measurement. Study of electron micrographs of different components of animal cell. Microscopic examination and identification of cells of different types and sizes. Preparation of blood smear, staining and identification of cellular components and platelets. Microscopic examination and identification of different types of epithelia, connective tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue. Identification of various developmental stages of mammalian and fowl embryos. Microscopic examination and identification of various organs of domestic mammals and birds.


- Teacher lectures (class notes)

- WEB page of the discipline: http://evunix.uevora.pt/~fcs/HistoVet.htm

- Original and review articles

- Books recommended:

  1. Aughey E. e Fredric Frye F. (2001) Comparative Veterinary Histology with Clinical Correlates. Blackwell Publishing.

  2. Azevedo, Carlos (Coord., 1999) Biologia Celular. 3ª Edição. LIDEL.

  3. Bacha, J., Jr. e Bacha, L.A. (2000) Color Atlas of Veterinary Histology. 2th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  4. Bancroft, J.D. e Gamble M. (2001) Theory and practice of histological technique. 5th edition. Elsevier.

  5. Banks W.J. (1993) Applied Veterinary Histology. 3rd Edition. Elsevier.

  6. Campbell T.W. (1995) Avian Hematology and Cytology. 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing.

  7. Carlson B.M. (1990) Embriologia Basica de Patten. 5a edicion. Interamericana-McGraw Hill.

  8. Climent S., Sarasa M., Dominguez L., Muniesa P. e Terrado J. (1998) Manual de anatomia y embriologia de los animales domésticos: conceptos básicos y datos aplicativos. Editorial Acribia.

  9. Dellmann, H.-Dieter e Eurell, J. A. (1998) Textbook of Veterinary Histology. 5th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  10. Eroschenko V.P. (2000) di Fiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  11. Harvey J.W. (2001) Atlas of Veterinary Hematology - Blood and Bone Marrow of Domestic Animals. Elsevier

  12. Kierszenbaum A. (2002) Histology And Cell Biology An Introduction to Pathology. Elsevier.

  13. Majno G. e Joris I. (2004) Cells, Tissues and Disease: Principles of General Pathology. Oxford University Press.

  14. Milikowski C. e Berman I. (1996) Color Atlas of Basic Histopathology. 1st edition. McGraw Hill.

  15. Noden, D. M. e De Lahunta, A. (1990) Embriología de los animales domesticos: mecanismos de desarrollo y malformaciones. Editorial Acribia.

  16. Young, B. e Heath, J. W. (2000) Wheater's Functional Histology, A Text and Colour Atlas. 4th Edition. Elsevier.

Evaluation methods

Students are assessed via a mixture of 3 written examination (60% - multiple choice questions, fill-in-the-blank, True/False questions, short answer and/or essay), 3 practical (30% -identification of five/six slides with the light microscope) and analysis and presentation of a scientific paper (10%)

Student support and guidance

  1. The presentation by instructors or guest speakers of well-organized lectures that are entertaining, engaging and informative.

  2. Leading classroom discussions and/or question-answer periods based on readings of textbook, previous class discussions, lectures, or current events.

  3. Analyses and discussion of scientific papers

  4. Observations of slides during classes and 2-3 days before pratical exam.